The electrospinning nanofiber-extracellular matrix composite material has simple and easy preparation steps and does not require large equipment. It has the advantages of electrospinning nanofibers and extracellular matrix, and has good biocompatibility and good mechanical properties compared with simple electrospinning nanofiber materials or extracellular matrix materials. It is easier to add value to cell adhesion. It has high application prospect and practical value in medical tissue engineering repair, which can effectively promote cell adhesion growth, proliferation, migration and differentiation, and can expand and culture stem cells on a large scale. In addition, the composite material has low antigenicity and is rigorously screened for no risk of disease transmission.
Electrospinning technology, due to its simple operation and wide range of spinnable materials, has developed rapidly in the past two decades and is becoming one of the most commonly used techniques in the preparation of microfibers. The diameter of electrospinning fibers is mostly nanometer or sub-micron, with extremely high specific surface area and porosity, and has certain application potential in the field of tissue engineering. It has been shown that the textile-like morphology and nano-scale fiber diameter of nanofiber scaffolds are very similar to the natural protein fibers in animals. This structure can greatly promote the adhesion, growth and reproduction of seed cells. However, the disadvantage of the electrospinning material is that it is highly hydrophobic, is not conducive to cell adhesion, and the degradation product is acidic, which easily causes an inflammatory reaction in the body.
The reticular system of fibrous and globular proteins present between cells is called extracellular matrix (ECM), which is an important component of the cellular environment. The various ECM components secreted by cells form matrix stroma and matrix membrane. The cells in the body are anchored to the framework. These structures provide the spatial localization and stability required for the formation and development of tissue-specific histology. Extracellular matrix (ECM) includes collagen, non-collagen glycoproteins, aminoglycans and proteoglycans, and elastin to maintain tissue function by maintaining cell survival, determining cell shape, regulating cell proliferation, controlling cell differentiation, and participating in cell migration. The acellular matrix has been widely used because it removes substances that cause immune responses such as cells and soluble proteins, and retains the original natural structure. However, the simple use of extracellular matrix as a tissue engineering repair material has poor mechanical properties and cannot effectively resist the pressure of soft tissue.
Cell vector culture is a technique and method for large-scale cultivation of adherent cells, and is the main method for large-scale culture of adherent-dependent cells. By attaching the cells to the surface or inside of the carrier through a carrier medium that has no toxic side effects on the cells, the cell culture area and efficiency can be greatly improved, such as microcarrier culture technology, which has the advantages of homogeneous culture and both plate culture and suspension culture, and culture conditions. (temperature, pH, carbon dioxide concentration, etc.) are easy to control, and the culture process is systematic and automated, and is not easily contaminated. However, cell carriers currently available on the market (for example, Cytodex series microcarriers) are mostly expensive and are not suitable for industrial large-scale culture of cells. At present, the carrier materials for large-scale expansion of stem cells include natural materials and synthetic materials. The synthetic materials mainly include polyacetate, polyacetate, and copolymers of the two. Disadvantages of synthetic materials are hydrophobicity, which is detrimental to cell adhesion, and degradation products are acidic, against cells. Natural materials are derived from animals or human bodies. Their network structure, composition and biomechanical environment are suitable for the growth, development and metabolism of seed cells, and the materials are degradable, which is increasingly valued by researchers.
The development of electrospinning nanofiber-extracellular matrix composite material overcomes the deficiency of the above extracellular matrix material as a cell carrier, and is beneficial to reduce the cost of industrial large-scale adherent cell carrier culture in the future. Electrospinning nanofiber-extracellular matrix composites are used in the field of polymer materials and tissue engineering technology. (Some materials are organized in the patent network, the invention patent number is CN103877622B)