Electrospinning is a new spinning technology developed on the basis of traditional solution spinning and melt spinning technology. It is a simple and effective spinning process for preparing polymer microfibers. The basic principle of the technology is that under the high-voltage static electricity of several thousand to several tens of volts of polymer fluid, the charged polymer deforms the capillary droplets under the action of the electric field drag force and the electrostatic repulsion of the polymer surface, and changes from spherical to spherical. As a cone, as the electric field strength increases, the charge density on the cone increases, and the angle of the cone gradually changes until a Taylor cone is formed. As the electric field strength and surface charge density increase further, the cone begins to enter an unstable state, and when the threshold voltage is reached, the polymer droplets will eventually overcome the surface tension and form a jetted stream. The trickle is further solidified into solid fibers as the solvent evaporates or the influence of the environment.
The range of fiber diameters obtained by electrospinning is much smaller than that of conventional spinning methods, and the diameter can generally be controlled from several tens to thousands of nanometers. Due to the very fine fiber diameter, electrospinning nanofiber materials have many advantages that other materials do not have, including interconnected through-holes, ultra-high specific surface area, surface micro-nano structure, soft flexural resistance, etc. Therefore, electrospinning nanofibers have good gas or liquid permeability, impurity adsorption barrier properties, biocompatibility and adhesion. Electrospinning materials include natural polymers, synthetic polymers, ceramic fibers, composite fibers, carbon fibers, and the like. The application fields of electrospinning technology mainly involve pollution waste treatment, filtration separation, biomedicine, new energy, electronic information, catalysis, national defense industry and other fields.